Hyperparathyroidism is nothing but excess production of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to over activity of one or more of the body’s four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck .
The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps to maintain an appropriate balance of calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues .
Two types of hyperparathyroidism exist.
Primary hyperparathyroidism :
An enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes overproduction of the hormone, resulting in high levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcaemia), which can cause a variety of health problems.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism :
Occurs as a result of another disease that initially causes low levels of calcium in the body and over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur.
Hyperparathyroidism is often diagnosed before signs or symptoms of the disorder are apparent. When symptoms do occur, they’re the result of damage or dysfunction in other organs or tissues due to high calcium levels circulating in the blood and urine or too little calcium in bones.
Symptoms may be so mild and nonspecific that they don’t seem at all related to parathyroid function, or they may be severe. The range of signs and symptoms include:
- Fragile bones that easily fracture (osteoporosis)
- Kidney stones
- Excessive urination
- Abdominal pain
- Tiring easily or weakness
- Depression or forgetfulness
- Bone and joint pain
- Frequent complaints of illness with no apparent cause
- Nausea, vomiting or loss of appetite
Risk factors :
You may be at an increased risk of primary hyperparathyroidism if you:
- woman who has gone through menopause.
- Suffering from prolonged, severe calcium or vitamin D deficiency.
- Have a rare, inherited disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1, which usually affects multiple glands.
- Have had radiation treatment for cancer that has exposed your neck to radiation.
Healthy tips for your Hyperparathyroidism :
Monitor how much calcium and vitamin D you get in your diet.Restricting dietary calcium intake is not advised for people with hyperparathyroidism.
- Drink plenty of fluids. Drink enough fluids, mostly water, to produce nearly clear urine to lessen the risk of kidney stones.
- Exercise regularly. Regular exercise, including strength training, helps maintain strong bones. Talk to your doctor about what type of exercise program is best for you.
- Don’t smoke. Smoking may increase bone loss as well as increase your risk of a number of serious health problems. Talk to your doctor about the best ways to quit.
- Avoid calcium-raising drugs. Certain medications, including some diuretics and lithium, can raise calcium levels. If you take such drugs, ask your doctor whether another medication may be appropriate for you.
When to visit a doctor :
Visit your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms of hyperparathyroidism. These symptoms could be caused by any number of disorders, including some with serious complications. It’s important to get a prompt, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
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